Home | Darpan | Volume 4 | Issue 3 Jul-Sep 2011 | AICTE Sponsored Staff Development Program (SDP)

AICTE Sponsored Staff Development Program (SDP)

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AICTE Sponsored Staff Development Program (SDP) On Total Quality Management (TQM) July 20-30, 2011

Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore structured a well-through –out AICTE Sponsored Staff Development Program (SDP) on Total Quality Management (TQM) that was scheduled from (July 20-30, 2011). This SDP was anticipated to endow with a comprehensive training on Total Quality Management and correlated issues applicable to manufacturing, service and education sector. It consisted of 60 hours meticulous learning agenda intended at making all the participants trained on diverse aspects of TQM. The SDP developed the skills of writing case studies on Manufacturing Process, R&D, Benchmarking, TPM, SCM, and other connected issues. It also facilitated the participants to comprehend the importance of case based research. 

The SDP was for Lecturers from Management Institutes, Engineering Institutes, and MCA Institutes, with teaching experience of less than 5 years and working in AICTE Approved Institutions. The program was designed for 40 participants who were registered on a first-cum-first served basis.  The SDP was a mix of Theory, Case Studies, Field/ Industrial Visits, Exercises/Role Plays etc. The faculty members from IITs, IIMs and Senior Professionals from Industry and Academics shared their experiences with the participants.  

For outstation participants, the traveling allowance was paid by the Institute (train/bus) for the shortest route. Accommodation was also provided by the Institute on a twin-sharing basis.  

Day 1

On 20th July 2011, the Inauguration Ceremony started by the dignified presence of Dr. P. K. Mishra, Vice Chancellor, DAVV, Indore and Dr. P. N. Mishra, Professor IMS, DAVV, Indore.

Hon’ble Vice Chancellor Dr. P. K. Mishra, enlightened all by his wisdom and experience and threw a light on various issues related to quality. He also focused on the obligation of each individual whether it be Teachers, Students or any responsible citizen of the nation. 

On 20th July 2011, Understanding Quality was the First Session taken by Hon’ble Dr. P.N. Mishra said Philosophy and common sense tend to see qualities as related either to subjective feelings or to objective facts. The qualities of something depends on the criteria being applied to and, from a neutral point of view, do not determine its value (the philosophical value as well as economic value). Subjectively, something might be good because it is useful, because it is beautiful, or simply because it exists. Determining or finding qualities therefore involves understanding what is useful, what is beautiful and what exists. Commonly, quality can mean degree of excellence, as in, "a quality product" or "work of average quality". 

The Second Session was taken by Mr. Shiv Kumar, Director Inox Works & Consultant Pvt. Ltd. on Understanding Quality. Mr. Kumar talked about two types of improvements that are small improvements and structural changes. Mr. Kumar discussed about the quality philosophies given by W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. 

On 20th July, 2011, the Third Session was taken on Quality Philosophies by Dr. P.K. Jain, Principal, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore. He started by questioning why Quality is required? Is quality vital for growth of the human being, corporation, students, teacher and society at large? He said Man by Nature always like quality, whether it is related to Product, Services, or Individual. Every one expects BEST in every field/area. This word “BEST” means nothing but Quality and…… Quality is again a relative term. Its level increases every time. Every time you expect more than earlier. 

There are some Personal Attributes like Attitude, Punctuality, Discipline, Hard work, Knowledge level and Re-Engineering. He revised upon few quotations like “Quality is not an act, it is a habit” and “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of intelligent effort” and also quote by Mahatma Gandhi, “It is the quality of our work which will please God and not the quantity.” He repeated the words by W. Edwards Deming, “Quality is everyone's responsibility.” So Quality is nothing but mindset at that particular moment. As a result for every company, every individual, the meaning of quality is different and it goes on changing with time. He ended his presentation with an inspirational saying, “Every work is a portrait of a person who did it. Autograph your work with excellence”.

The Third Session was conducted on Quality Philosophies by Prof. Anish Patel, Reader, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore. He delivered Quality can be a confusing concept, partly because people view quality in relation to differing criteria based on their individual roles in the value chain, such as perfection, delighting or pleasing the customer, eliminating waste, doing it right the first time, and/or consistency. He also focused on W. Edwards Deming 14 Points, concepts of Joseph Juran, and Six Sigma.  

Philosophy and common sense tend to see qualities as related either to subjective feelings or to objective facts. The qualities of something depends on the criteria being applied to and, from a neutral point of view, do not determine its value (the philosophical value as well as economic value). Subjectively, something might be good because it is useful, because it is beautiful, or simply because it exists. Determining or finding qualities therefore involves understanding what is useful, what is beautiful and what exists. Commonly, quality can mean degree of excellence, as in, "a quality product" or "work of average quality".

Day 2

On 21st July 2011, the First Session was on Quality Circles, taken by Dr. S. S. Yadav, Director, AFMR, Indore. He highlighted on the Voluntary group of employee and supervisor and said that QC works on the basic of a continuous & on going process in an organization. In 1960s first quality circle was developed. It was developed in Japan, it spread to more than 50 countries. 

He also explained various Principles of QC and said that Employees want to do a good job. They want to be recognized as intelligent and interested individuals who like to participate in decision making issues. Employees want to be better informed about organizational goals and problem. Employees want recognition and responsibility and a feeling of self esteem. Highlighting on the advantages, he focused on Rise in organization morale, inspiring more effective team work. Promoting job involvement, creating problem solving capability by members of QCs themselves, Promoting personal and leadership development, Improving communication within the organization, Promoting cost reduction and Increase in employees motivation.

The Second Session was continued on Total Quality through Japanese 5- S by Dr. S. S. Yadav, Director, AFMR, Indore. He said that the 5 -S practice is a technique used to establish and maintain quality environment in an organization. The name stands for 5 Japanese words:-

•Seiri - Stratification management and dealing with the causes

•Seiton - Functional storage and eliminating the need to look for things

•Seiso - Cleaning as inspection and degree of cleanliness

•Sieketsu - Visual management and 5-S standardization

•Shitsuke - Habit formation and a disciplined workplace

He also explained the concepts on 5 s Audit worksheet.


The Third Session was on Total Quality through QMS by Mr. Nilesh Gupta, MOODY International, Indore. He explained Certification Services, Awareness About  Quality Management Systems , The ISO 9000 Series, About ISO 9000:2005, About ISO 9001:2008, About ISO 9004:2009, The PDCA Cycle, ISO 9001:2008, Role of top management within the quality management system, Quality Management Principles, Types of Audits, Quality Management System Documentation, Process Documentation, . Resource Management, Product Realization, Design and development planning, Design and development inputs, Design and development outputs, Design and development review, Design and development verification, Design and development validation, Control of design and development changes, Measurement, analysis and Improvement. He ended his presentation with beautiful lines of Mahatma Gandhi, “A customer is the most important visitor on our premises. He is not dependent on us. We are dependent on him. He is not an interruption on our work. He is the purpose of it. He is not an outsider on our business. He is a part of it. We are not doing him a favor by serving him. He is doing us a favor by giving us an opportunity to do so.”

The Fourth Session was on TQM in Education, Dr. V. K. Jain, Director, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore. TQM is a Comprehensive Management System which focuses on meeting customers’ needs by providing quality services at a cost that provides value to the customers. Quality improvement is a continuous process of customer satisfaction and it can be achieved by analyzing the processes used to create products and services. He said that we can find Quality in the Room. The Roof inspires us to Aim High, Fan to be cool and calm, Clock says- Every minute is precious, Mirror says Reflect before you act, Window inspires to  See the world, Calendar- Be up-to-date, Door- Don’t miss the opportunity, Bed- Relax, Think, Recharge for facing the challenge and innovation. We have two categories of Customers, Internal (Students, Teachers, Employees, Administrator) and External (Parents, Employers, Alumni, Suppliers, Community). He spoke on various factors and resources like Man, (Academic staff, Students), Machines, Materials, Money, Markets, Management, Methodologies, Measurement, Motivation and also on Manufacturing Dimensions, Service Dimensions etc. To inculcate the concept of TQM in the system, The Top Management must not only “talk the talk” but also “walk the talk”


Day 3

On 22nd July, 2011, the First Session was on Continuous Improvement Using  Six Sigma, taken by Dr. Nagendra Sohani, IET, DAVV Indore. He defined Six Sigma as a new way of doing business,  Wise application of statistical tools within a structured methodology,  Repeated application of strategy to individual projects, Projects selected that will have a substantial impact on the ‘bottom line’. 

He gave example of Motorola and said that it learned from customers (Need to change all systems to focus on total customer satisfaction) and from Japanese (Involvement all employees to increase efficiency and moral and Simpler designs result higher levels of quality and reliability). Six Sigma Focuses on customer satisfaction, Data, Reach-out goals, Team based, All employees involved, Clear definition and understanding of roles, Personal growth etc. Six-step continuous improvement methods includes  to create the operational statement and metric, define the improvement teams, Identify potential causes, Investigate and root cause identification, making  improvement permanent, demonstrating improvement and celebrate etc.

The Second Session on Kaizen was taken by Prof. Nidhi Shukla, Reader, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore. She said Quality is both thinking why something is done, and why it is done that way; then thinking differently to improve it by Akio Toyoda, Chairman of Toyota. Kaizen: means “improvement”. Kaizen strategy calls for never-ending efforts for improvement involving everyone in the organization-managers and workers alike. Kaizen in Japanese means to modify, to change (Kai) for the better (Zen). Although the term has become associated with the philosophy of gradual, orderly, continuous improvement, involving everyone in the organization. It’s an On Going improvement which involves everyone into organization (Top – Lower Managers).  It is Process Oriented Way of Thinking. Kaizen Philosophy assumes that our way of life-be it our working life, our social life, or our home life- deserves to be constantly improved. The essence of Kaizen is simple and straightforward is “IMPROVEMENT & IMPROVEMENT”. Kaizen recognizes that improvements can be small or large. Many small improvements can make a big change- So Kaizen works at a detailed level. The foundation of Kaizen method consists of five following elements: Teamwork, Personal Discipline, Improved Morale, Quality Circles, and Suggestions for improvement. 

The Third Session on Kanban was taken by Dr. Alok Mittal, Director, SVCE, Indore. He gave an example of Toyota Production System and said that Toyota production system was developed & promoted by TMC. The main purpose of TPS is to eliminate waste through continuous improvement activities, Profit through cost reduction, Elimination of over production, Quality control, Quality assurance, Respect for humanity etc.  As you reduce costs, you create options. 

Lower prices, which often lead to higher market share, More R & D, Growth through acquisitions or diversification, Higher investment in training and equipment, Greater profitability, which rewards shareholders, including employees, Options give the company the means to survive on its own terms, even in slow economic times, and grow as  the economy recovers. The Main Features of TPS are Greater Product Variety, Fast Response (Flexibility), “Stable” Production Schedules, Supply Chain Integration, Demand Management etc. The Elements of TPS are The SMED Program, Highlight Problems (Jidoka), Gradual Elimination of Waste, Continuous Improvement (Kaizen), Root-Cause Analysis (5-whys?) and Fool-proofing (Poka-Yoke), Cross-Trained Workers, Just-In-Time Production, Stable Production Schedules (Heijunka). 

The Forth Session on JIT was also taken by Dr. Alok Mittal, Director, SVCE, Indore. Just-in-time (JIT) is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Or JIT is a ‘pull’ system of production, so actual orders provide a signal for when the product should be manufactured. Demanding ‘pull’ enables a firm to produce only what is required, in the correct quantity and at the correct time. He also covered the following topics like Objectives of JIT, JIT Principles, Types of JIT, History, Process, JIT Implementation, Advantages, and Disadvantages of JIT Production etc.


Day 4

On 23rd July, 2011, the First Session and Second Session was on BPR by Dr. Nishith Dubey, Director, MRSC, Indore. He started by saying that in The Existing Setup  Jobs are broken to simple tasks and assigned to “Specialists” who can perform only that broken part (principle of Adam Smith which was successfully used by Henry Ford). Manager’s responsibilities include to look at “the numbers” – sales, profit, inventory, market share of various divisions and check for appropriate action if they deviate from defined targets. 

The nature of change has changed. Changes now have become both pervasive and persistent. The pace of change has accelerated, especially with the astounding change in technology. Reengineering, properly, is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business process to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed.  Every job in this company is essential and important.  I do make a difference. I belong to a team.  We fail or we succeed together Nobody knows what tomorrow holds.  Constant learning is part of my job. The actual work of reengineering is done by the team, who produce ideas and plans to reinvent the business.  They contain insiders and outsiders. Processes not organizations are are the object of reengineering. The departments are not reengineered the work inside the department is reengineered. Apart from this , he explained in detail, the various issues related to BPR like Why this will not work , What is Reengineering,  Reengineering Themes, Characteristics of Reengineered Business What changes occur, Values in Reengineering, IT as Enabler, Who will Reengineer, What and Reengineer, Techniques, Where do you start etc.

The Third Session and Fourth Session were on Total Quality Services and Measuring Service Quality by Dr. R. K. Jain, Director, PIMD, Dewas. He said the global market is becoming more competitive every day. Companies continually search for new ways to gain an edge over their competitors around the globe. Global competition and deregulation in a number of industries is forcing companies to turn to quality in order to survive. Quality is our best assurance of customer allegiance, our strongest defense against foreign competition, and the only path to sustained growth and earnings. Perhaps the most important reason for pursuing quality is that quality pays. Research shows a relationship between quality, market share, and return on investment. Quality is one of the core components of value in the S-Q-I-P model. Quality is still a powerful competitive force facing companies. Modern communications permit and in some cases encourage customers to shift their patronage from one producer to another. Global competition has resulted in increased choice and has raised customer expectations of what constitutes acceptable quality. Technology - marketing is a contest for consumer’s attention and the Internet is now competing for that attention as the number of Internet users worldwide continues to rise.

He also explained about Deming’s 14-Point Philosophy on Quality, The 6 Sigma Approach to Quality, Crosby’s Philosophy of Quality, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Mapping Service Quality, SERVQUAL Model: Gap Analysis, Benefits of SERVQUAL, How to Improve Quality etc.

Customers use service quality attributes such as reliability, competence, performance, durability, etc. to evaluate technical quality. Functional Quality has more to do with how the technical quality is transferred to the consumer. Service quality attributes such as responsiveness and access would be important in helping the customer judge the functional quality of the service encounter. Defining quality for services is more difficult than for products because of the intangible, variable nature of service characteristics. 


Day 5

On 25th July, 2011, the First and Second Sessions were on Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM), taken by Dr. S.S. Bhakar, Director, PIMG, Gwalior.  He said a company-wide team-based effort to build quality into equipment and to improve overall equipment effectiveness; all employees are involved in TPM Process. 

TPM aims to eliminate all accidents, defects and breakdowns, enhances Productive, actions are performed while production goes on, troubles for production are minimized. He spoke on Maintenance, good conditions, repair, clean, lubricate etc. TPM combines the traditionally American practice of preventive maintenance with Total Quality Control and Total Employee Involvement, to create a culture where operators develop ownership of their equipment, and become full partners with Maintenance, Engineering and Management to assure equipment operates properly everyday. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. It is no longer simply squeezed in whenever there is a break in material flow. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum. He explained the Origins of TPM, TPM principles, OEE, World Class OEE, Calculating OEE, TPM Goal, and Objective of TPM, Differences between TQM and TPM, Tools used in Kaizen, TPM implementation, 3 requirements for fundamental improvement etc.   

The Third and Forth Sessions were on Benchmarking, taken by Prof. Anish Patel, Reader, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore. He said it is a management technique to improve business performances. It is used to compare performance between different organizations or different units within single organizations, undertaking similar processes on a continuous basis. The aim of Benchmarking is to document and measure a key process and then compare the resulting data with those relating to similar process in other organizations. He explained Types of Benchmarking, Approaches to Benchmarking, Procedures representing the approach, Selecting benchmarking partners, the benchmarking visit, Necessary Underpinnings of Benchmarking, Recommendations for better Benchmarking, Modes of Benchmarking Process used by the Demonstrator Organizations for the Benchmarking Exercises etc. He said it is a value to organization involved in quality programs. It is a quality tool and most used where the culture and practices are focused on achieving best practice. Where it is to be introduced, training must be implemented first. He explained what benchmarking is, how implemented within the organization,  what it involves and why it is being carried out, To make staff understand the necessary, mapping and measuring stages of the process and supply the data and the needed documentation.  


Day 6

On 26th July, 2011 the First and Second Sessions were taken by Dr. V. K. Jain, Director, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore took a lecture on CRM. He said CRM “is a business strategy that aims to understand, anticipate and manage the needs of an organisation’s current and potential customers”. It is a “comprehensive approach which provides seamless integration of every area of business that touches the customer- namely marketing, sales, customer services and field support through the integration of people, process and technology”. 

CRM is a shift from traditional marketing as it focuses on the retention of customers in addition to the acquisition of new customers “The expression Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is becoming standard terminology, replacing what is widely perceived to be a misleadingly narrow term, relationship marketing (RM)”. “CRM is concerned with the creation, development and enhancement of individualised customer relationships with carefully targeted customers and customer groups resulting in maximizing their total customer life-time value”. The focus [of CRM] is on creating value for the customer and the company over the longer term”. When customers value the customer service that they receive from suppliers, they are less likely to look to alternative suppliers for their needs. CRM enables organisations to gain ‘competitive advantage’ over competitors that supply similar products or services. 

The Third and Forth Sessions Dr. A.C. Shukla, Professor, GEC, Ujjain.

He focussed on Supply chain strategy – its context, components and structure, Location decisions – including how multi-national companies integrate operational resources, Inventory Decisions, Information systems and SCM, Supply chain modeling, analysis and costing, Performance measures and quality control option, Transport management, including planning techniques and opportunities for improvement, Performance measurement, Customer Service levels selection and supply chain vulnerabilities, Supply chain integration and e-supply management. He explained on Material Flow Integration - 

Stage I, Material Flow Integration - Stage II= Logistics, Material Flow Integration – Stage, III = Supply Chain Management, Integrated  Supply Chain Approach, “Globally” Integrated Planning, Extended Supply Chain, Sample definitions of Supply Chain, Schematic Illustration, Dynamics of Order Flow Dynamics of Material Flow, Supply Chain Process, Supply Chain Building Blocks, Mathematical Models, Information Building Blocks, Key Problem in SCM, Supply Chain Planning, Supply Chain Operation, Reasons to Globalize Operations, Global Process Design & Technology, Factors guiding the Operating environment, Major determinants of product positioning strategy etc. 


Day 7 

Industrial Visit

On 27th July, 2011,  the First Four Sessions were based on Case Development on TQM (in Groups). The details of groups that went for industrial visit and case writing were: 

Group 1(Cummins, Dewas)

Group 2 (Neo Corp, Pithampur)

Group 3 (Ranbaxy, Dewas)

Group 4 (Tata Steel)

Group 5 (Gajra Differential Gear Ltd.)


Day 8  

All the participants of SDP started the compilation of the data, facts and the material collected. They sat in the  Computer Lab and started giving a shape and to their case.  


Day 9

On 29th July, 2011, the First Two Sessions were Presentation of the Cases that were developed by faculty and delegates. Thereafter Dr. Pawan Patni, Director, Pioneer Institute of Professional Studies, Indore took Third and Forth Sessions on Case Formation and Presentation. A case study is an intensive analysis of an individual unit (e.g., a person, group, or event) stressing developmental factors in relation to context. The case study is common in social sciences and life sciences. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. They may be prospective, in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available, or retrospective, in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study.  "Case studies are analyses of persons, events, decisions, periods, projects, policies, institutions, or other systems that are studied holistically by one or more methods. The case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an instance of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame — an object — within which the study is conducted and which the case illuminates and explicates." 


Day 10

On 30th July 2011, Dr. Nitin Seth, Prof, IIFT, New Delhi took Two Sessions on Global Supply Chain Management and World Class Manufacturing. With increased globalization and offshore sourcing, global supply chain management is becoming an important issue for many businesses. Like traditional, supply chain management, the underlying factors behind the trend are reducing the costs of procurement and decreasing the risks related to purchasing activities. The big difference is that global supply chain management involves a company's worldwide interests and suppliers rather than simply a local or national orientation. Because global supply chain management usually involves a plethora of countries, it also usually comes with a plethora of new difficulties that need to be dealt with appropriately. One that companies need to consider is the overall costs. While local labor costs may be significantly lower, companies must also focus on the costs of space, tariffs, and other expenses related to doing business overseas. Additionally, companies need to factor in the exchange rate. Obviously, companies must do their research and give serious consideration to all of these different elements as part of their global supply management approach.

The Valedictory Session, the Last Session was marked by the presence of Dr. P. K. Jain, Principal, Pioneer Inst. Indore and Dr. Nitin Seth, Prof, IIFT, New Delhi. 

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