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Role Of Information And Communication Technology In Teacher’s Education

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The use of Information and Communication Technologies or (ICT), in academic field is a major point of discussion. Where educators and educational researchers are continuously working for innovative ways of using these technologies to support and enhance student outcomes in education.Use of ICT in education and teaching provide number of benefits, but to avail the facilities of ICT teachers need to have certain level of confidence. They should be prepared to use ICT in teaching and also trained in how to integrate ICT with teaching. The main purpose of this paper is to shows the gap between the ICT curriculum used in various universities to train teachers with what is expected from the international standards, national ICT in education policy and the development of the field of ICT itself. This paper also serves those of the challenges and issues faced by teacher educators in preparing and using ICT training curriculum for the next generation of teachers in the face of rising globalization.

1. Introduction: The use of technology in education is not only expected as a means of enhanced and extended instructional methods, but also the learning process in this century. The right and appropriate use of ICT in the field of academic provides both teachers and students various learning opportunities and with that improves their teaching and learning process. Teachers through out the world should learn how to use and teach by incorporating modern technologies in their instructions. It is also essential that teacher education institutions develop plans and strategies to train teachers and to be well-prepared with ICT skills and competencies to cope with the influx of changes, as this initial training will determine the ways they use it in their teaching-learning activities at the school and Classrooms.

ICT Plan In Primary And Secondary Education
2. Background: The Government has introduced various initiatives to facilitate the greater adoption and diffusion of ICT to improve capacities in every field of business, industry, education, and life in general. This includes:
1.    Enhancement of education and training programmes
2.    Provision of an environment conducive to the development of ICT
3.    Provision of incentives for computerization and automation Creation of venture capital funds

3. ICT: ICT when introduced in the field of education will bring along a new era of learning with more effective organizational structures in schools, stronger links between schools and society, and the empowerment of disenfranchised learners. The concept of ICT in education includes systems that enable information gathering, management, manipulation, access, and communication in various forms.
Integration of ICT in teacher education is influenced in large part by two sets of factors: national policy and resources, and policies relating to curriculum development.

4. The Three Main Policies For ICT In Education: The first principle is that technology should be infused into the entire teacher education programme. This principle means that ICT should not be restricted to a single course but needs to permeate all courses in the programme. The second principle advanced by SITE is that technology should be introduced in context. According to this principle, particular ICT applications like word processing, databases, spreadsheets and telecommunications should not be taught as separate topics but rather encountered as the need arises in all courses of the teacher education programme. The third of the key principles is that students should experience innovative technology-supported learning environments in their teacher education programme.

This last principle requires that students should see their lecturers engaging in technology to present their subjects, for example, utilizing PowerPoint or simulations in lectures and demonstrations. Students should also have the opportunity to use such applications in practical classes, seminars and assignments.

5. ICT Training In Primary Education: For the successful implementation of any project training is must. Selected master trainers undergo training, and they pass on this training to selected trainers, who in turn, train their colleagues at school, district, or state level. Various agencies should be deployed to conduct training to the teacher’s, heads of schools and other school administrators. Orientation courses should also be conducted. In addition to this specialized short-term courses should also be conducted. Also in-service training can be done to train the teacher’s and should disseminate the necessary knowledge and skills to their colleagues back in their schools or colleges.

6. Barriers To Implementing ICT In Schools: Following barriers to implementing information technology programmes in schools were reported:
1.    Physical barriers such as remoteness and an unreliable electricity supply
2.    Scarcity of funds
3.    Lack of staff development
4.    Insufficient and inappropriate software and
5.    Speed of technological development

7. The Concept - Electronic Book: The use of the electronic book or e-book can also introduced and projected. The prime object is to see how the device stores electronic textbooks and links the user to the internet can be used to improve teaching and learning in the classroom. The aim is to replace conventional textbooks by the e-books and thereby eliminate  heavy school-bags.

The pilot project can be conducted in selected schools for a period of five months. This can improve computer and technology knowledge, as well as engage students in reading and learning. Another project that involves the creation of web presence, web tools that promote collaboration, and web-based services to the community to obtain sought-after information. Components of services delivered include e-mail, web hosting, electronic discussion and the creation of searchable databases.

Project milestones include compilation of current content to be migrated to the E-Learning Website, which will be developed to host homepages for at least 100 schools. Teachers also will be trained in web page development.

8. Implementation Strategies: We need to be committed to utilizing the following multi-prong strategies to ensure that the objectives of ICT in education are achieved.
1.    The preparation of sufficient and up-to-date tested ICT infrastructure and
equipment to all educational institutions
2.    The roll-out of ICT curriculum and assessment and the emphasis of integration of ICT in teaching and learning
3.    The upgrading of ICT knowledge and skills in students and teachers
4.    Increased use of ICT in educational management
5.    The upgrading of the maintenance and management of ICT equipment in all educational institutions

9. Conclusion: Introducing ICT into all schools in the country is a major undertaking, but it represents an investment in the future productivity of India’s workforce and a down-payment on the country’s future prosperity. It will require a major commitment of resources, but the country will benefit from the change for many years to come. Success will require support from many stakeholders, including all agencies in the educational system and sufficient funds to establish and maintain ICT in the schools. In addition, policies, norms, and guidelines will have to be established to promote the use of ICT in schools. Lastly, continuing professional development for teachers, school heads, and other educational personnel must be instituted.

10. References:
1.    J. Anderson 1997, Information Technology Options for Educational Management: Challenges and Responses.
2.    Managing Educational Realities in Asia and the Pacific: A Report of South East Asia and Pacific Region Educational.
3.    Administrators’ and Managers’ Symposium (Vol. II),, SEAPREAMS, Darwin.
4.    J. Anderson, and v.an Weert, T. (Eds). 2002, Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development. UNESCO, Paris.
5.    N. Anderson and Baskin, C. 2002, Can We Leave It to Chance? New Learning Technologies and the Problem of Professional Competence, Available at: http://www.ed.sturt.flinders.edu.au/iej/articles/v3n3/anderson/BEGIN.HTM 
6.    T Downes,., Khun, T., Scott, D., Leonard, R. and Warhurst, J. 2003, Preservice Teacher Training and Teacher Professional Development in the Use of ICTs in the Training of Mathematics and Science in Participating SEAMEO Countries (a SEAMEO-Australia Project), Department of Science, Education and Training, Canberra.
7.    R. Kvaternik, 2001, Teacher Education Through Distance Learning: Technology - Curriculum - Cost – Evaluation (Summary of Case Studies), UNESCO, Paris.
8.    R. Kvaternik, 2002. Teacher Education Guidelines: Technology - Curriculum - Cost - Evaluation. UNESCO, Paris.
9.    M.M. Moore, and A. Tait, (Eds) 2002, Open and Distance Learning: Trends, Policy and Strategy Considerations, UNESCO, Paris.
10.    D. Moursund, 2003. Craft and Science of ICT in Education. [Online]. Available:
http://www.uoregon.edu/~moursund/ICT-planning/ craft-science.htm
    11.    P. Resta, (Ed.), 2002. Information and Communication Technologies in Teacher Education: A Planning Guide. UNESCO, Paris.
    12.    R. Toomey, 2002. Information and Communication Technology for Teaching and Learning. [Online]. Available: http://www.dest.gov.au/schools/Publications/2001/ digest/technology.htm


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